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Active Citizenship Program


Fundamental rights are the basic human rights enshrined in the Constitution of India which are guaranteed to all citizens. They are applied without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender, etc. Significantly, fundamental rights are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain conditions. There are six fundamental rights of Indian Constitution along with the constitutional articles related to them are mentioned below:
  • 1. Right to Equality (Article 14-18)
  • 2. Right to Freedom (Article 19-22)
  • 3. Right against Exploitation (Article 23-24)
  • 4. Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28)
  • 5. Cultural and Educational Rights (Article 29-30)
  • 6. Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)


Fundamental Duties in India are guaranteed by the Constitution of Indiain Part IVA in Article 51A. These fundamental duties are recognized as the moral obligations that actually help in upholding the spirit of nationalism as well as to support the harmony of the nation, as well as of the citizens. These duties are designed concerning the individuals and the nation. However, these fundamental duties are not legally enforceable. Furthermore, the citizens are morally obligated by the Constitution to perform these duties. These Fundamental Duties were added by the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976.

Article 51-A of the constitution provides 10 Fundamental Duties of the citizen. These duties can be classified accordingly as relating to the environment, duties towards the state and the nation and also towards self. However, the main purpose of incorporating the fundamental duties is to encourage the sense of patriotism among the country's citizens.

Features of Fundamental Duties

  • 1. The fundamental duties contained both the moral as well as civic duties. For example, cherishing noble ideals from freedom struggle is on moral lead however respecting the constitution, national flag and national emblem is on civic lead.
  • 2. Though some of the fundamental rights are extended to foreigners as well as aliens but fundamental duties are only confined to Indian citizenship and do extend towards foreigners.
  • 3. Like Directive Principles, Fundamental Duties are also non-enforceable in nature. The government cannot enforce legal sanction for their violation.
  • 4. The duties are essentially taken from the Indian tradition, mythology, religions and practices. Essentially these were the duties that are the codification of tasks integral to the Indian way of life.

Significance of Fundamental Duties

  • 1. It serves as a constant reminder to the citizens while enjoying their rights, the citizens should be aware of their duties their nation and towards other citizens.
  • 2. These serve as a warning to the people against the anti-social activities that disrespect the nation like burning the flag, destroying the public property or disturbing public peace.
  • 3. These help in the promotion of a sense of discipline and commitment towards the nation. They help in realising national goals by the active participation of citizens rather than mere spectators.
  • 4. It helps the Court in determining the constitutionality of the law. For instance, any law passed by the legislatures, when taken to Court for constitutional validity of the law, if it is giving force to any Fundamental Duty, then such law would be taken as reasonable.
  • 5. They can be enforced by the law, the parliament has the right to impose any type of penalty or punishment for violating any of the Fundamental Duties.

List of Fundamental Duties in the Indian Constitution

  • 1. to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national Flag and the National Anthem;
  • 2. to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  • 3. to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  • 4. to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  • 5. to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  • 6. to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  • 7. to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • 8. to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  • 9. to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  • 10. to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;
  • 11. Every parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of 6 and 14 years x